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Some historians consider that the Indus Valley civilization first developed the use of woven textiles. Pakistani craftsmen have the capacity to produce any type of carpet using all the popular motifs of gulls, medallions, paisleys, traceries, and geometric designs in various combinations.
Chaudary Mukhtar Ahmad Member son of Maher Ganda introduced and taught this art to locals and immigrants. He is considered founder of this industry in Pakistan.
Sangla Hill is now a focal point in Carpet Industry in Pakistan. Almost all the exporters and manufacturers who are running their business at Lahore, Faisalabad and Karachi have their area offices in Sangla Hill.
The Persian carpet is a part of Persian Iranian art and culture. Carpet- weaving in Persia dates back to the Bronze Age.
The earliest surviving corpus of Persian carpets come from the Safavid dynasty — in the 16th century.
However, painted depictions prove a longer history of production. There is much variety among classical Persian carpets of the 16th and 17th century.
Common motifs include scrolling vine networks, arabesques , palmettes , cloud bands , medallions, and overlapping geometric compartments rather than animals and humans.
The majority of these carpets are wool, but several silk examples produced in Kashan survive. Scandinavian rugs are among the most popular of all weaves in modern design.
Preferred by influential modernist thinkers, designers, and advocates for a new aesthetic in the mid-twentieth century, Scandinavian rugs have become very widespread in many different avenues of contemporary interior design.
With a long history of adaptation and evolution, the tradition of Scandinavian rug-making is among the most storied of all European rug-making traditions.
Turkish carpets also known as Anatolian , whether hand knotted or flat woven, are among the most well known and established hand crafted art works in the world.
The carpets are always hand made of wool or sometimes cotton, with occasional additions of silk. These carpets are natural barriers against the cold.
Turkish pile rugs and kilims are also frequently used as tent decorations, grain bags, camel and donkey bags, ground cushions, oven covers, sofa covers, bed and cushion covers, blankets, curtains, eating blankets, table top spreads, prayer rugs and for ceremonial occasions.
The majority of them represent geometric and stylized forms that are similar or identical to other historical and contemporary designs.
The knotted rug is believed to have reached Asia Minor and the Middle East with the expansion of various nomadic tribes peoples during the latter period of the great Turkic migration of the 8th and 9th centuries.
Famously depicted in European paintings of The Renaissance , beautiful Anatolian rugs were often used from then until modern times, to indicate the high economic and social status of the owner.
Women learn their weaving skills at an early age, taking months or even years to complete the beautiful pile rugs and flat woven kilims that were created for their use in every aspect of daily life.
As is true in most weaving cultures, traditionally and nearly exclusively, it is women and girls who are both artisan and weaver.
It is useful to distinguish between the original Turkmen tribal rugs and the rugs produced in large numbers for export in the s, mainly in Pakistan and Iran.
The original Turkmen rugs were produced by the Turkmen tribes who are the main ethnic group in Turkmenistan and are also found in Afghanistan and Iran.
They are used for various purposes, including tent rugs, door hangings and bags of various sizes. Oriental carpets began to appear in Europe after the Crusades in the 11th century, due to contact by Crusaders with Eastern traders.
Until the midth century they were mostly used on walls and tables. Except in royal or ecclesiastical settings they were considered too precious to cover the floor.
Starting in the 13th century oriental carpets begin to appear in paintings notably from Italy, Flanders, England, France, and the Netherlands. Although isolated instances of carpet production pre-date the Muslim invasion of Spain, the Hispano-Moresque examples are the earliest significant body of European-made carpets.
Documentary evidence shows production beginning in Spain as early as the 10th century AD. The earliest extant Spanish carpet, the so-called Synagogue carpet in the Museum of Islamic Art, Berlin, is a unique survival dated to the 14th century.
The earliest group of Hispano-Moresque carpets, Admiral carpets also known as armorial carpets , has an all-over geometric, repeat pattern punctuated by blazons of noble, Christian Spanish families.
The variety of this design was analyzed most thoroughly by May Beattie. Many of the 15th-century, Spanish carpets rely heavily on designs originally developed on the Anatolian Peninsula.
Carpet production continued after the Reconquest of Spain and eventual expulsion of the Muslim population in the 15th century. Two of the most popular motifs are wreaths and pomegranates.
During the Moorish Muslim period production took place in Alcaraz in the province of Murcia, as well as being recorded in other towns. Carpet production after the Christian reconquest continued in Alcaraz while Cuenca , first recorded as a weaving centre in the 12th century, became increasingly important, and was dominant in the 17th and early 18th century.
Cuenca was closed down by the royal degree of Carlos IV in the late 18th century to stop it competing with the new workshop. Madrid continued as a weaving centre through to the 20th century, producing brightly coloured carpets most of whose designs are strongly influenced by French carpet design, and which are frequently signed on occasions with the monogram MD; also sometimes with the name Stuyck and dated in the outer stripe.
After the Spanish civil war General Franco revived the carpet weaving industry in workshops named after him, weaving designs that are influenced by earlier Spanish carpets, usually in a very limited range of colours.
Pirot carpet [a] Serbian: Pirot kilims with some ornaments and 96 different types have been protected by geographical indication in They are one of the most important traditional handicrafts in Serbia.
In the late 19th century and up to the Second World War, Pirot kilims have been frequently used as insignia of Serbian and Yugoslav royalty. This tradition was revived in when Pirot kilims were reintroduced for state ceremonies in Serbia.
Carpet weaving in Pirot dates back to the Middle Ages. Pirot was once the most important rug-making centre in the Balkans.
Pirot is located on the historical main highway which linked central Europe with Constantinople. The Pirot carpet varieties are also found in Bulgaria and Turkey, and in many other international collections.
One of the chief qualities are the colour effects achieved through the choice and arrangement of colours. In the beginning of the 19th century plant dyes were replaced by aniline colourings.
The designs are extremely pretty, and the rugs, without being so heavy as the Persian, or so ragged and scant in the web and woof as Caramanian, wear for ever.
The manufacture of these is almost entirely confined to Pirot. The Chiprovtsi carpet Чипровци килим is a type of handmade carpet with two absolutely identical sides, part of Bulgarian national heritage, traditions, arts and crafts.
Its name is derived from the town of Chiprovtsi where their production started in the 17th century. The carpet weaving industry played a key role in the revival of Chiprovtsi in the s after the devastation of the failed Chiprovtsi Uprising against Ottoman rule.
They earn only five francs a month and the payment was even lower before". In , the locals founded the Manual Labour carpet-weaving cooperative society, the first of its kind in the country.
Work is entirely manual and all used materials are natural; the primary material is wool, coloured using plant or mineral dyes. In recent decades, however, the Chiprovtsi carpet industry has been in decline as it had lost its firm foreign markets.
As a result, the town and the municipality have been experiencing a demographic crisis. This production was soon moved to the Savonnerie factory in Chaillot just west of Paris.
They are densely ornamented with flowers, sometimes in vases or baskets, against dark blue or brown grounds in deep borders. The designs are based on Netherlandish and Flemish textiles and paintings.
These masterpieces, made under the artistic direction of Charles Le Brun , were never installed, as Louis XIV moved the court to Versailles in Pierre-Josse Joseph Perrot Q is the best-known of the mid-eighteenth-century carpet designers.
His many surviving works and drawings display graceful rococo s-scrolls, central rosettes, shells, acanthus leaves, and floral swags.
The Savonnerie manufactory was moved to the Gobelins in Paris in Carpet production in small, privately owned workshops in the town of Aubusson began in Carpets produced in France employ the symmetrical knot.
Knotted pile carpet weaving technology probably came to England in the early 16th century with Flemish Calvinists fleeing religious persecution.
Because many of these weavers settled in South-eastern England in Norwich the 14 extant 16th and 17th century carpets are sometimes referred to as "Norwich carpets.
All but one are dated or bear a coat of arms. Like the French, English weavers used the symmetrical knot. There are documented and surviving examples of carpets from three 18th-century manufactories: Exeter —, owned by Claude Passavant , 3 extant carpets , Moorfields —, owned by Thomas Moore, 5 extant carpets , and Axminster —, owned by Thomas Whitty , numerous extant carpets.
Exeter and Moorfields were both staffed with renegade weavers from the French Savonnerie and, therefore, employ the weaving structure of that factory and Perrot-inspired designs.
Neoclassical designer Robert Adam supplied designs for both Moorfields and Axminster carpets based on Roman floor mosaics and coffered ceilings.
Axminster carpet was a unique floor covering made originally in a factory founded at Axminster, Devon, England, in by the cloth weaver Thomas Whitty.
Resembling somewhat the Savonnerie carpets produced in France, Axminster carpets were symmetrically knotted by hand in wool on woolen warps and had a weft of flax or hemp.
Like the French carpets, they often featured Renaissance architectural or floral patterns; others mimicked oriental patterns.
Similar carpets were produced at the same time in Exeter and in the Moorfields section of London and, shortly before, at Fulham in Middlesex.
The Whitty factory closed in with the advent of machine-made carpeting. The name Axminster, however, survived as a generic term for machine-made carpets whose pile is produced by techniques similar to those used in making velvet or chenille.
Machine woven carpet is an investment that will last 20 or 30 years and woven Axminster and Wilton carpets are still extremely popular in areas where longevity and design flexibility are a big part of the purchasing decision.
Hotels and leisure venues almost always choose these types and many homes use woven Axminsters as design statements. The finished result, which can be intricately patterned, creates a floor that provides supreme underfoot luxury with high performance.
Tufted carpets are also popular in the home. They are relatively speedy to make - a pre-woven backing has yarns tufted into it. Needles push the yarn through the backing and which is then held in place with underlying "loopers".
Tufted carpets can be twist pile, velvet, or loop pile. Twist pile carpets are produced when one or more fibres are twisted in the tufting process, so that in the finished carpet they appear to be bound together.
Velvet pile carpets tend to have a shorter pile and a tighter construction, giving the finished article a smooth, velvety appearance. Loop pile carpets are renowned for being hard wearing and lend carpets great texture.
The traditional domain of rugs from far away continents, hand knotted squares and rugs use the expertise of weavers to produce work of the finest quality.
Six of Axminster carpets are known as the "Lansdowne" group. These have a tripartite design with reeded circles and baskets of flowers in the central panel flanked by diamond lozenges in the side panels.
Axminster Rococo designs often have a brown ground and include birds copied from popular, contemporary engravings.
Even now a large percentage of the 55, population town still seek employment in this industry. The town of Wilton, Wiltshire is also known for its carpet weaving, which dates back to the 18th century.
The Brussels Loom was introduced into England towards the middle of the eighteenth century marked the beginning of a new era in carpet-weaving.
It was the first loom on which a pile carpet could be woven mechanically, the pile consisting of rows of loops, formed over wires inserted weftwise during weaving and subsequently withdrawn.
Brussels was the first type of carpet to be woven in a loom incorporating the jacquard pattern selecting mechanism and in power was applied to the loom by Biglow in the U.
Later when bladed wires were developed the pile loops were severed on withdrawal of the blade wires to produce a carpet known as Wilton, after this development the loom became known as the Wilton loom, and in modern usage the designation Wilton applies to both cut-pile and loop-pile carpets made in this loom.
The latter now variously described as Brussels-Wilton, round wire Wilton, loop-pile Wilton, and round wired jacquard.
The methods of manufacture, including the principles of designing, preparatory processes, and weaving, are the same in most respects for both Brussels and Wilton qualities.
The chief difference between them is that whereas Brussels loop-pile is secured satisfactorily by the insertion of two picks of weft to each wire 2-shot , the Wilton cut-pile is woven more often with three picks of weft to each wire 3-shot to ensure that the tufts are firmly secured in the carpet backing.
Brussels carpets have a smooth slightly ribbed surface and their patterning is well defined, a characteristic feature of the carpet. Closeness of pile rather than height contributes to their neat appearance and hard wearing properties, although they do not simulate the luxury of cut-pile carpets.
The looms could incorporate up to 5 frames all with different colours thus enabling figured or pattern carpets to be manufactured.
With judicial and very skilful planting of colours in the frames the number of colours could be increased to about twenty, thus enabling very complex designs to be produced.
Due to the additional costs in labour these carpets were normally only produced for the bespoke market. After the first World War the carpets started to be produced for the general market using popular designs and colourways but they always remained at the luxury end of the general market.
Despite the impact of industrialization, the areas where Brussels Wilton carpets were produced remained centred mainly in the Midlands around the towns of Wilton and Kidderminster and in West Yorkshire where the firm of John Crossley and Sons in Halifax became synonymous with carpet manufacture.
There were smaller areas of manufacture in Scotland and Durham. The last quarter of the 20th century saw the rapid decline of the labour-intensive Brussels Wilton carpets.
Where necessary different widths can be seamed together with a seaming iron and seam tape formerly it was sewn together and it is fixed to a floor over a cushioned underlay pad using nails, tack strips known in the UK as gripper rods , adhesives, or occasionally decorative metal stair rods , thus distinguishing it from rugs or mats , which are loose-laid floor coverings.
For environmental reasons, the use of wool, natural bindings, natural padding, and formaldehyde-free glues is becoming more common.
These options are almost always at a premium cost. In the UK, some carpets are still manufactured for yachts, hotels, pubs and clubs in a narrow width of 27 inches 0.
Carpeting is more than just a single item; it is, in fact, a system comprising the carpet itself, the carpet backing often made of latex , the cushioning underlay, and a method of installation.
These are usually only used in commercial settings and are affixed using a special pressure-sensitive glue, which holds them into place while allowing easy removal in an office environment, for example or to allow rearrangement in order to spread wear.
Carpet binding is usually cotton or nylon, but also comes in many other materials such as leather. Non-synthetic binding is frequently used with bamboo, grass and wool rugs, but is often used with carpet made from other materials.
There are many stories about magic carpets , legendary flying carpets that can be used to transport people who are on it instantaneously or quickly to their destination.
Aladdin and Jasmine ride on him to go on a ride around the world. The term "[m]agic carpet [is] first attested [in] In some cases, an actual red carpet is used for VIPs and celebrities to walk on, such as at the Cannes Film Festival and when foreign dignitaries are welcomed to a country.
In s British servant slang, to "carpet" someone means to call them for a reprimand. Carpet bombing is a type of bombing from airplanes which developed in the 20th century in which an entire city is bombed rather than precise strikes on military targets.
The slang expression "laugh at the carpet" means to vomit on the floor especially a carpeted floor. The term carpet bag , which literally refers to a suitcase made from a piece of carpet, is used in several figurative contexts.
The term gained a popular usage after the American Civil War to refer to carpetbaggers , Northerners who moved to the South after the war, especially during the Reconstruction era — Carpetbaggers allegedly politically manipulated and controlled former Confederate states for financial and power gains.
In modern usage in the U. In the United Kingdom, the term was adopted to refer informally to those who join a mutual organization , such as a building society , in order to force it to demutualize , that is, to convert into a joint stock company , solely for personal financial gain.
Cutting the rug is a slang term for dancing which originated in В ковре нити темно-синего и голубого цвета окрашены индиго по карминоносным червецам, нити красного цвета - аналогичными червецами типа араратской кошенили.
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The Times of India. Archived from the original on Retrieved 28 October Harper, David James, Richard P. Ingegrating Bioprocess into Chemical Production.
Retrieved 27 January Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology. Retrieved 2 October Archived from the original on October 5, The study, preservation and restoration of ethnographic objects.
Theses of reports, Riga, 16—21 November Глебовская, Применение тонкослойной хромотографии и электронной спектроскопии для анализа красителей древних тканей.
Исследование, консервация и реставрация этнографических предметов. Its Use and Origin, Munich, , p.
Armenian Academy of Sciences. Medieval Art of Artsakh , p. Armenian Academy of Sciences , , p. Archived from the original on October 4, The Times Of India.
The Oriental Rug Lexicon. University of Washington Press, Types of design of handmade oriental rugs". XI, Carpets, Chapter Oxford University Press, Inspired by our classic Ziegler collection, our Kensington rugs are high quality pieces with colors that work perfectly in many different settings.
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